plural of bone (n.). As a colloquial way to state "dice," it is attested from late 14c. As a nickname for a surgeon, it dates to 1887, quick for sawbones. In order to make bones about one thing (mid-15c.) identifies bones present in soup, etc., as an obstacle to becoming swallowed. To feel anything in one single's bones "have a presentiment" is 1867, American English.
(used into the plural) a percussion instrument comprising a set of hollow pieces of lumber or bone (usually held amongst the flash and fingers) which are built to click collectively (as by Spanish performers) in rhythm using the dance
I figure them bones is another matter.