The furnaces are driven to a white heat in order to fuse the mixture and expel bubbles of gas and air.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
It melts at below red heat to a brown mass, and its vapour density at both red and white heat corresponds to the formula Cu 2 C1 2.
It is a dark yellow powder, which fuses at a high temperature, the liquid on cooling depositing shining tabular crystals; at a white heat it loses oxygen and yields the monoxide.
Brunner's process consisted in forming an intimate mixture of potassium carbonate and carbon by igniting crude tartar in covered iron crucibles, cooling the mass, and then distilling it at a white heat from iron bottles, the vaporized metal being condensed beneath the surface of paraffin or naphtha contained in a copper vessel.
Cadmium oxide, CdO, is a brown powder of specific gravity 6.5, which can be prepared by heating the metal in air or in oxygen; or by ignition of the nitrate or carbonate; by heating the metal to a white heat in a current of oxygen it is obtained as a dark red crystalline sublimate.
Gases, like atmospheric air, hydrogen or carbon dioxide do not become luminous if they are placed in tubes, even when heated up far beyond white heat as in the electric furnace.
In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.