The warping which is practised in England is almost exclusively confined to the overflowing of level ground within tide mark, and is conducted mostly within the districts commanded by estuaries or tidal rivers.
This was the result of several conditions, among them the recent development, through warping and faulting and volcanic extrusion, of high lands with more or less considerable slopes.
The sites of deposition varied as the period progressed, for the warping and faulting of the surface, the igneous extrusions, and the deposition of sediments obliterated old basins and brought new ones into existence.
This epoch of great deformation and warping marks the transition from the Tertiary to the Quaternary.
Wooden pulleys are preferably made of maple, the rim being formed of small sections morticed, pinned and glued together, with the grain set in such directions that any warping of the material will leave the cylindrical form practically unaltered.
High; the distortion has evidently taken place through the use of unseasoned timber and consequent warping of the woodwork.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
The basins have been variously ascribed to glacial erosion, to obstruction of normal outlet valleys by barriers of glacial drift, and to crustal warping in connection with or independent of the presence of the glacial sheet.
In this way the danger of warping is averted, and exudations from the wooden surface are prevented from reaching the overlaid coats of lacquer.
The best notion of the process of warping may be gained by sailing up the Trent from the Humber to Gainsborough.