On the other hand, Professor Spiegelberg, 3 writing soon after Professor Breasted, says that investigation has not as yet furnished proof that the Phoenician alphabet is of Egyptian origin, though he admits that in some respects the development of the two alphabets, both without vowel signs, is curiously parallel.
These conclusions were hotly contested by Johannes Buxtorf, being in conflict with the views of his father, Johannes Buxtorf senior, notwithstanding the fact that Elias Levita had already disputed the antiquity of the vowel points and that neither Jerome nor the Talmud shows any acquaintance with them.
It will be seen that they contain three vowel and six consonant elements, and these formed the foundation for her first real lesson in speaking.
Add to this the insertion of vowel sounds where they are lacking in the Arabic and you derive from the real word Khmir the modern French term of Kroumir.
A similar tone of exaggerated depreciation of the Massoretic Hebrew text, coloured by polemical bias against Protestantism, mars his greatest work, the posthumous Exercitationes biblicae de hebraeici graecique textus sinceritate (1660), in which, following in the footsteps of Cappellus, but with incomparably greater learning, he brings irrefragable arguments against the then current theory of the absolute integrity of the Hebrew text and the antiquity of the vowel points.
In some cases a post-tonic vowel other than a is preserved in Catalan, as, for example, when that vowel forms a diphthong with the tonic (Deft, D e us; Ebriu, He bred s); or, again, it sometimes happens, when the tonic is followed by an i in hiatus, that the i persists (diliivi, dilfivium; servici, servicium; lbi, lbium; ciri, cereus); but in many cases these ought to be regarded as learned forms, as is shown by the existence of parallel ones, such as servey, where the atonic i has been attracted by the tonic and forms a diphthong with it (servIci, scrvii, serve)?).
The grammatical forms are expressed, as in Turkish, by means of affixes modulated according to the high or low vowel power of the root or chief syllables of the word to which they are appended-the former being represented by e, o, S, ii, i l l, the latter by a, d, o, 6, u, it; the sounds e, i, i are regarded as neutral.
The Attic a, which does not represent an IndoEuropean a, but arises by contraction, as in OtXe77-m, or through the lengthening of the vowel sound as the result of the loss of a consonant, as in Eiprt j Avos for FEFpn Avos) the short sound is represented by B; c is found at Corinth in its oldest form, and also as I, while in Thera it is In Thera the w sound of digamma (F) was entirely lost, and therefore is not represented.
And as in Hebrew, the six letters b g d k p t are aspirated when immediately preceded by any vowel sound.
Sumerian has a system of vowel harmony strikingly like that seen in all modern agglutinative languages, and it has also vocalic dissimilation similar to that found in modern Finnish and Esthonian.