The wines of the Rhine are grown in the most northerly latitude at which viticulture is successful in Europe, and consequently, when the seasons are not too unpropitious, they display the hardiness and distinction characteristic of northern products.
To meet the needs of technical and industrial education there are a school of mines at San Juan, a school of viticulture at Mendoza, an agronomic and veterinary school at La Plata, several agricultural and pastoral schools, and commercial schools in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Bahia Blanca and Concordia.
Two illustrated volumes by Oswald Crawford, Portugal Old and New (London, 1880) and Round the Calendar in Portugal (London, 1890) contain much valuable information on agriculture, viticulture and peasant life in the northern provinces.
There is a school of viticulture and a very considerable trade in Moselle wines, especially during the annual auctions.
There are a modern cathedral, a school of viticulture and a high school, besides an ancient clock-tower and the palace (Konak) formerly occupied by the Turkish pashas.
Many of the instruments and processes of Portuguese agriculture and viticulture were introduced by the Romans, and are such as Columella described in the 1st century A.D.
The vines, the methods of viticulture and vinification as regards the red wines of the Graves district, are similar to those of the Medoc. The wines are, if anything, slightly fuller in body and more alcoholic than those of the latter region.
Model farms were established at Livno and at Gacko, on the Montenegrin border; a school of viticulture near Mostar; a model poultry-farm at Prijedor, close to the Croatian boundary;.
Owing, however, to the fact that viticulture has made much progress in South America, in California, in Australia and particularly in Algeria, and also to the fact that the quality of these Midi wines has fallen off considerably since the phylloxera period, the outlet for them has become much reduced.