In 1875 Arnold Toynbee paid a visit, the first of many, to Whitechapel, and Mr Barnett, who kept in constant touch with Oxford, formed in 1877 a small committee, over which he presided himself, to consider the organization of university extension in London, his chief assistants being Leonard Montefiore, a young Oxford man, and Frederick Rogers, a member of the vellum binders' trade union.
He was, after his student course, appointed stipendiarius by the Arna-Magnaean trustees, and worked for fourteen years in the Arna-Magnaean Library till, as he said, he knew every scrap of old vellum and of Icelandic written paper in that whole collection.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
Generally from to 24 gores and two small segments for the polar regions printed on vellum paper are used for each globe.
A simple plan is as follows - draw an outline of the country of which a map is to be produced upon a board; mark all points the altitude of which is known or can be estimated by pins or wires clipped off so as to denote the heights; mark river-courses and suitable profiles by strips of vellum and finally finish your model with the aid of a good map, in clay or wax.
In the 5th century St Augustine apologizes for sending a letter written on vellum instead of the more usual substance, papyrus (Ep. xv.); and Cassiodorus (Varr.