Powerful as Indra is in the celestial world, Mitra and Varuna preside over night and day.
Various attempts have been made, with little success, to identify fragments of unknown languages in cuneiform inscriptions with members of this group. The investigation has entered a new and more favourable stage as the result of the discoveries made by German excavators at Boghaz Keui (said to be identical with Herodotus' Pteria in Cappadocia), where treaties between the king of the Hittites and the king of Mitanni, in the beginning of the 14th century B.C., seem almost certainly to contain the names of the gods Mitra, Varuna and Indra, which belong to the early Aryan mythology (H.
The earlier conception of Varuna is singularly similar to that of Ahuramazda of the Avesta.
With Mitra and Varuna (Grassmann, Warterbuch, s.v.); in Zend, according to Bartholomae (Altiranisches Warterbuch, s.v.), from the earliest literature, the Gathas, there is nothing definite to be learnt regarding Airyaman.
In the first he is represented as so desirous of a son that he vows to Varuna that if his prayer is granted the boy shall be eventually sacrificed to the latter.
As contrasted with Indra the war god, Varuna is the lord of the natural laws, the upholder of the physical and moral order of the universe.