On the defeat of the adventurer Stenka Razin (1667-1671) many who were unwilling to submit to the iron rule of Moscow made their way to the settlements of Stroganov in Perm, and tradition has it that, in order to get rid of his guests, Stroganov suggested to their chief, Yermak, that he should cross the Urals into Siberia, promising to help him with supplies of food and arms. Yermak entered Siberia in 1580 with a band of 1636 men, following the Tagil and Tura rivers.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.
Gold has been mined in the Urals since 1820; but since 1892 the output has fallen off very considerably.
From Russia, too, there is a stream of colonization across the Urals into western Siberia, and amongst the western Mediterranean populations there is constant migration to North Africa The greatest drain from Europe, however, has been across the sea to the United States, Canada and Australasia, especially to the first-named.
These were united by Khan Ediger, and conflicts with the Russians who were then colonizing the Urals brought him into collision with Moscow; his envoys came to Moscow in 1555 and consented to a yearly tribute of a thousand sables.
The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones.
In the Urals the marine facies is more fully developed and the fauna shows affinities with that of the Productus limestone of the Central Asian mountain belt.
Chelyabinsk was linked by a transverse line with the middle Urals railway, which connects Perm, the head of navigation in the Volga basin, with Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Ob and Irtysh, passing through Ekaterinburg and other mining centres of the middle Urals.
The temperature drops so rapidly that a month later, about October the oth on the middle Urals and November the 15th throughout Russia, the thermometer ceases to rise above the freezing-point.
Of the Urals, but the question as to the glaciation of the Urals still remains open.