The thermochemical properties of the constituents of an explosive will assign an upper limit to the volume, temperature and pressure of the gas produced by the combustion; but much experiment is required in addition.
Descending to the lowlands on either side of the plateau, the temperature rises steadily until the upper limit of the tropical region, called tierras calientes, is reached, where the climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, as elsewhere in the forested coastal plains of tropical America.
The upper limit of this region coincides with the so-called limit of perpetual snow.
In descending order they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness in the district of Durness is estimated at about 2000 ft.: (e) limestones, dolomites and cherts, with numerous organic remains; (d) grit and quartzite, with Saltarella and Olenellus (Serpulite Grit); (c) calcareous shales and dolomites, with many annelid casts and sometimes Olenellus (Fucoid Beds); (b) Upper Quartzite, often crowded with annelid pipes (Pipe Rock Quartzite); (a) Lower Quartzite - their original upper limit can nowhere be seen, for they have been overridden by the Eastern Schists in those gigantic underground disturbances already referred to, by which these rocks, the Archean gneiss and Torridonian sandstone, were crumpled, inverted, dislocated and thrust over each other.
Berry-yielding plants are found everywhere, even on the goltsy, at the upper limit of tree vegetation; on the lower grounds they are an article of diet.
In the cattle classes, aged beasts of huge size and of considerably over a ton in weight used to be common, but in recent years the tendency has been to reduce the upper limit of age, and thus to bring out animals ripe for the butcher in a shorter time than was formerly the case.
Blending with these at their upper limit and continuing above them are clumps of mountain mahogany, which sometimes attains a height of 20 or 30 ft.
Above sea-level, the upper limit of the members of the orange tribe; the second ascends to about 3300 ft., the limit of the growth of wheat, the vine and the hardier evergreens; and the third, that of forests, reaches from about 3300 ft.
When the upper limit is infinity, so that the limits correspond to the inclusion of half the primary wave, C and S are both equal to by a known formula; and on account of the rapid fluctuation of sign the parts of the range beyond very moderate values of v contribute but little to the result.
The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 850o ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.