American rosin is obtained from the turpentine of the swamp pine, Pinus australis, and of the loblolly pine, P. Taeda.
It is found in Kumaon and Bhotan and on some of the Nepal ranges, but does not grow in the moist climate of the Sikkim Himalayas; it is found at a height of 7000 to 12,000 ft., and attains large dimensions; the wood is highly resinous, and is said to be durable; great quantities of a white clear turpentine exude from the branches when injured.
Lampblack is prepared by burning tar, resin, turpentine and other substances rich in carbon, with a limited supply of air; the products of combustion being conducted into condensing chambers in which cloths are suspended, on which the carbon collects.
So beneficial is the action that for years there prevailed the unfortunately erroneous belief that Chian turpentine is actually curative in this condition.
Oil of turpentine (Oleum terebinthinae) is administered internally as an anthelmintic to kill tapeworm.
Portions most liable to destruction, those parts between the tide marks, were found perfectly sound, and showed no signs of the ravages of marine organisms. Other valuable timber trees of the eastern portion of the continent are the blackbutt, tallow-wood, spotted gum, red gum, mahogany, and blue gum, eucalyptus; and the turpentine (Syncarpialaurifolia), which has proved to be more resistant to the attacks of teredo than any other timber and is largely used in wharf construction in infested waters.
It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
Oil of turpentine is a colourless liquid of oily consistence, with a strong characteristic odour and a hot disagreeable taste.
Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.