Palpalis, although in South Africa there can be no question that the extermination of big game has been followed or accompanied by the disappearance of tsetse from many localities in which they formerly abounded.
Animals suffer from the ravages of bot flies (Oestridae) and gad flies (Tabanidae); while the tsetse disease is due to the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans), carrying the protozoa that cause the disease from one horse to another.
Domestic animals include the horse and donkey in the plateaus, but baggage animals are rare in the coast-lands, where the tsetse fly is found.
In appearance tsetse are somewhat narrow-bodied flies, with a prominent proboscis, which projects horizontally in front of the head, and with the wings in the resting position closed flat one over the other like the blades of a pair of scissors (see fig., B).
The tsetse fly (Glossing morsitans) infests several districts; the sand-flea has been imported from the west coast.
Insects abound, the greatest pest being the tsetse fly, common in the low veld.
Even better pasture is found in the low veld, but there stock suffers in summer from many endemic diseases, and in the more northerly regions is subject to the attack of the tsetse fly.