On the temperate uplands of the southern states there are imposing forests of South American pine (Araucaria brasiliensis), whose bare trunks and umbrella-like tops give to them the appearance of open woodland.
High mountain levels supplied paths of communication for stocking the South Temperate region, the floras of which were enriched by adapted forms of tropical types.
A torrid zone, between the tropics of summer and winter, which was uninhabitable on account of heat; two frigid zones, uninhabitable on account of cold, and two intermediate temperate zones.
The North Temperate region admits of subdivision into several well-marked sub-regions.
Maize, wheat and other cereals are cultivated on the elevated plateaus, with the fruits and vegetables of the temperate zone, and the European in Bogota is able to supply his table very much as he would do at home.
Above the sea, the indigenous species include the potato, maize, oca (Oxalis tuberosa), and quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), and the exotic species, wheat, barley, oats, alfalfa (Medicago saliva), and most of the fruits and vegetables of the northern temperate zone.
The immediate environs are very fertile and produce a great variety of fruits, including many of the temperate zone, but the surrounding country is arid and sterile, producing scanty crops of barley, Indian corn and pease.
This first or cold stage of the paroxysm varies much in length; in temperate climates it lasts from one to two hours, while in tropical and subtropical countries it may be shortened.
Cereals, forage crops, vegetables and fruits of the cold temperate zone can be produced easily, but distance from markets and lack of transport have restricted their production to local needs.
Pools in Britain, and also widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, is known as horned pondweed, from the curved fruit.