But there are also several important transverse valleys, those of the Garry and Tay being the most conspicuous examples.
The river is crossed by St John's Bridge of nine arches, completed in 1772 from the designs of John Smeaton and widened a century later; by Victoria Bridge, a modern structure connecting South Street with Dundee Road; and farther south (at the end of Tay Street) by a footway alongside of the viaduct belonging to the Caledonian railway.
The Caledonian Railway bridge at Glasgow, the reconstructed Tay bridge (1882-7), Forth bridge (1882-9), the Tower bridge, London, and the Nile lgridge at Cairo were amongst his principal achievements.
The Carse of Gowrie is the strip of low ground intervening between the Firth of Tay and the Sidlaw Hills.
Of the thirteen parliaments summoned by that sovereign, only one, the last, was held at Edinburgh, but his assassination in the Blackfriars' monastery at Perth led to the abrupt transfer of the court and capital from the Tay to the Forth.
Gradually growing more or less ruinous it was acquired by government in 1855, repaired, strengthened and converted into a Tay defence, mounting several heavy guns.
The valley of the Garry and Tay crosses the strike of all the Highland rocks, traverses the great fault on the Highland border, and finally breaks through the chain of the Sidlaw Hills at Perth.
Around being then only three fathoms deep. Lying in the fairway of vessels making or leaving the Tay and Forth, besides ports farther north, it was a constant menace to navigation.
The cantilevers can stiffened suspension bridge, but atter the fall of the Tay bridge in 1879 this was abandoned.
Perth has long been famous for its dyeing and bleaching, the bleach-fields being mostly situated outside of the city, in convenient proximity to the Tay and Almond.