In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
The European badger (Meles taxus or M.
Ermani), elder, poplar, elm, wild cherry (Prunus padus), Taxus baccata and several willows are mixed with the conifers; while farther south the maple, mountain ash and oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur cork (Philodendron amurense), the spindle tree (Euonymus macropterus) and the vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance.
The plants include a Fern, Onoclea hebridica, close to a living American form; four Gymnosperms belonging to the genera Cryptomeria, Ginkgo, Taxus and Podocarpus; Dicotyledons of about 30 species, several of which have been figured.
In Taxus the body-cell eventually divides into two, in which the products of division are of unequal size, the larger constituting the male generative cell, which fuses with the nucleus of the egg-cell.
The morphology of the female inflorescence of Cordaiteae has not yet been cleared up, but Taxus and Ginkgo among recent plants appear to offer the nearest analogies.
The stamens of Araucaria and Agathis are peculiar in bearing several long and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with the sporangiophores of the horsetails (Equisetum); in Taxus (yew) the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface.