The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
Intended primarily as a measure to secure the safety of the frontier, and regarded by the British government chiefly as a better means of affording a livelihood to a few thousands of the surplus population, this emigration scheme accomplished a far greater work than its authors contemplated.
One of the greatest improvement projects undertaken by the national Reclamation Service is one on the North Platte, begun in 1903, which contemplates a reservoir in Wyoming of sufficient capacity to store all the surplus waters of that stream, about 600 m.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.
In wet seasons it overflows its banks and becomes greatly extended in area, discharging its surplus waters into the San Joaquin; but in dry seasons the evaporation is so great that there is no such discharge.
Ladoga discharges its surplus water by means of the Neva, which flows from its south-western corner into the Gulf of Finland, rolling down its broad channel 104,000 cubic ft.
If such drafts upon the reserve fund become necessary, they are to be made good in the following years out of the surplus above mentioned.
In the lean years, harvests are small and farmers sometimes don't even produce enough to have surplus to sell.
This consists mainly of land acquired under an Inclosure Act of 1761, but a small part is surplus land acquired in1876-1879in connexion with an improvement scheme for clearing a large insanitary area in the centre of the town.
These parsissoks, elected at the rate of about one representative to 120 voters, wear a cap with a badge (a bear rampant), and aid the European members of the council in distributing the surplus profit apportioned to each district, and generally in advising as, to the welfare of that part of Greenland under their partial control.