The Judiciary Act of 1789 (as amended by subsequent legislation) provides for the appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States of a final judgment or decree in any suit rendered in the highest court of a state in which a decision in the suit could be had where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute for an authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under, any state, on the ground of their being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of their validity; or where any title, right, privilege or immunity is claimed under the Constitution, or any treaty or statute of, or commission held or authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege or immunity specially set up or claimed by either party under the Constitution, treaty, statute, commission or authority.
The Supreme Court of the United States held on the 18th of January 1897 that the provisions of the statute forbidding the importation of liquor by anyone except certain state officials were in violation of the interstate commerce clause of the constitution (Scott v.
Eight years later the Supreme Court of the United States decided in the case of Fletcher v.
As the trustees of this institution were Federalists with the right to fill vacancies in their number, the Democrats attempted to gain control by converting it into a state university and increasing the number of trustees, but when the case reached the Supreme Court of the United States that body pronounced (1819) the charter a contract which the Federal constitution forbade the state to violate.
In 1907 the Supreme Court of the United States declared that Colorado had diverted waters of the Arkansas, but, since it had not been shown that Kansas had suffered, the case was dismissed, without prejudice to Kansas, should it be injured in future by diversion of water from the river.
As a lawyer he was engaged during his later years in most of the especially important cases in the Supreme Court of the United States and in the courts of Maryland.
The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.
By President Washington's appointment he became chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in March 1796, and in 1799 President John Adams sent him, with William Vans Murray (1762-1803) and William R.
South of the Monongahela river; in 1906 Allegheny (q.v.), although a large majority of those voting on the question in that city were opposed to it, was annexed, and in November 1907 the Supreme Court of the United States declared valid the act of the state legislature under which the vote was taken.
Nominated chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1795, he presided during the August term, but the Senate refused to confirm the nomination, apparently because of his opposition to the Jay Treaty.