Neither a turbulent minority, nor the neglect of an absentee king; neither the revival of separatist tendencies in Lithuania, nor the outbreaks of aristocratic lawlessness in Poland, could do more than shake the superstructure of the imposing edifice.
Its superstructure consists of igneous rocks of all descriptions with which the original valleys between its marginal ranges have been filled by volcanic action.
But this imposing superstructure rested on the flimsiest of foundations.
The most conspicuous feature was a huge obelisk on a broad superstructure 11: the obelisk always remained closely connected with the solar worship, and probably took the place of the innermost shrine and statue of other temples.
The superstructure of a similar gate (Porta Marzia), which was removed in 1540 to make way for the citadel, but is depicted in a fresco by Benedetto Bonfigli (between 1461 and 1 477), was re-erected in the substruction walls of the citadel itself.
The houses of the city are built of stone, their walls commonly showing the massive masonry of the Incas at the bottom, crowned with a light modern superstructure roofed with red tiles.
Here the jib, superstructure and post are all united in one piece, which revolves in a foundation well, being supported at the bottom by a toe-step and near the ground level by horizontal FIG.
So far as superstructure is concerned, more material must be used than for an arch or chain, for the girder is in a sense a combination of arch and chain.
Among the monuments is that of Strongbow, the invader of Ireland, to whom the earlier part of the superstructure (1170) is due.
Broadly, the least costly arrangement is that in which the cost of the superstructure of a span is equal to that of a pier and foundation.