In 1248 Tlemcen was captured The by Abu Yahia Yarmorasen (Ghamarasan) who was Sultanate of chief of the Zenata tribe of Berbers and claimed Tlemcen.
MARRAKESH (erroneously MoRocco or Marocco City), one of the quasi-capitals of the sultanate of Morocco, Fez and Mequinez being the other two.
It is the best-built port of the sultanate and is generally second in point of trade, which is carried on mainly with Marseilles, London, Gibraltar and the Canaries, the principal exports being almonds, goat-skins, gums and olive-oil, and the principal imports cotton goods, sugar and tea.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
In 1908 a royal decree placed that part of the country between the Juba and the sultanate of Obbia under a civil governor.
During the critical period in which their empire was being established (c. 1505-1550) the Portuguese were fortunate in escaping conflict with any Oriental power of the first rank except Egypt and Turkey; for the Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan had been already disintegrated before 1498, and the Mughals and Mahrattas were still far off.
Edi on the north-east coast, with another harbour, is capital of a sultanate which formerly owed allegiance to the sultan of Achin, but has formed a political division of the government of Achin since 1889, when an armed expedition restored order.
The state of North Borneo may roughly be said to form a pentagon of which three sides, the north-west, northeast and east are washed by the sea, while the remaining two sides, the south-west and the south, are bordered respectively by the Malayan sultanate of Brunei, and by the territories of the raja of Sarawak and of the Dutch government.
Farther north, beyond the Mandara mountains, the country, here part of the ancient sultanate of Bornu, slopes to the shores of Lake Chad, and has a general level of Boo to 1000 ft.