From these results we see that Shaftesbury, opposed to Hobbes and Locke, is in close agreement with Hutcheson, and that he is ultimately a deeply religious thinker, inasmuch as he discards the moral sanction of public opinion, the terrors of future punishment, the authority' of the civil authority, as the main incentives to goodness, and substitutes the voice of conscience and the love of God.
Since the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by Desis and Argyroneta involves no increased facilities in getting food, and merely substitutes for ordinary terrestrial enemies fishes and crustaceans in the former case, and fishes, amphibians, and insectivorous water-insects in the latter, the supposition is justified that the change in environment is due to the unremitting persecution of Pompilidae and Ichneumonidae, which would not venture to pursue their prey beneath the water's surface.
The nuts of other species of Areca are used by the poorer classes in the East as substitutes for the genuine betel nut.
So soon as State control was applied to any article it could be taken as a sign that the supplies would soon come to an end, or at any rate were very restricted; and thus it was impossible to prevent the equipment of the army from becoming gradually more inadequate, and the provision both of the army and of the population behind the lines with all kinds of necessaries from being altogether insufficient; only wholly unsatisfactory substitutes could be provided, and the available provisions could hardly be made to go round.
For open pools and dams Schenck substitutes large wooden vats under cover, into which the flax is tightly packed in an upright position.
Like Schleiermacher he substitutes collective guilt for original sin; and he attaches great dogmatic value to the assertion that sin has two stages - ignorance, in which it is pardonable, and obduracy, when it is ripe for final sentence (probably annihilation).
Upon these officers devolved ultimately not only the disciplinary, financial and liturgical duties referred to, but also the still higher function of instructing their fellow-Christians in God's will and truth, and so they became the substitutes of the apostles, prophets and teachers in all respects (cf.
Such barbarism was alien to the spirit of the Founder, who substitutes bread and wine for his own flesh and blood, only imparting to these his own quality by the declaration that they are himself.
Many substitutes have been proposed for cork as a stoppering agent; but except in the case of aerated liquids none of these has recommended itself in practice.
In these latter cases the reaction may proceed in different directions; thus, with the aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine in the cold or in the presence of a carrier substitutes in the benzene nucleus, but in the presence of sunlight or on warming, substitution takes place in the side chain.