Gram is largely cultivated in the East, where the seeds are eaten raw or cooked in various ways, both in their ripe and unripe condition, and when roasted and ground subserve the same purposes as ordinary flour.
The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
Portion of which the ova or spermatozoa are developed, the lower portion serving as an oviduct or vas deferens; the female generative organs open at the middle of the body, the male close to the posterior extremity into the terminal portion of the alimentary canal; from this cloaca a diverticulum is given off in which are developed one to three chitinous spicules that subserve the function of copulation.
The flagellants reappeared, and made the state of religious trouble in Germany, provoked by the struggle between the papacy and Louis of Bavaria, subserve their cause.
The corky layers which take so prominent a share in the formation of the bark are similarly modified and subserve the same purpose.