De Saussure made the third ascent, memorable in many respects, and was followed a week later by Colonel Beaufoy, the first Englishman to gain the top. These ascents were all made from Chamonix, which is still the usual starting point, though routes have been forced up the peak from nearly every side, those on the Italian side being much steeper than that from Chamonix.
All soundings exceeding 4000 fathoms, occur in trenches, and there are only a few small trenches known (on the west coast of Central America) in which the maximum depth is less than 3000 fathoms. Jlost trenches are narrow, but of considerable length, and their steeper side is believed to be due in every case to a great fracture of the earth's crust..
Abt also developed the plan of combining rack and adhesional working, the engine working by adhesion alone on the gentler slopes but by both adhesion and the rack on the steeper ones.
The limits of fortifications, which it had outgrown, have both contributed to render Genoa a picturesque confusion of narrow streets, lanes and alleys, varied with stairways climbing the steeper slopes and bridges spanning the deeper valleys.
Most of the division indeed had to be used to patch up the weaker parts of the line, but Cathcart himself with about 400 men worked his way along the lower and steeper part of the eastern slope so as to take the assailants of the battery in flank.
The plough, often replaced on the steeper slopes by the hoe, is similar to that depicted in ancient Egyptian drawings, and hand irrigation is usual.
Io) to be the surface of the sea, b c the bottom, and c c the straight line made by the cable; then, if a hill H, which is at any part steeper than the inclination of the cable, is passed over, the cable touches it at some point t before it touches the part immediately below t, and if the friction between the cable and the ground is sufficient the cable will either break or be left in a long span ready to break at some future time.
The river enlarged the canal, and finding a steeper gradient than that to its mouth, was diverted into the Colorado desert, flooding Salton Sea; 1 and when the break in this river was closed for the second time in February 1907, though much of its water still escaped through minor channels and by seepage, a lake more than 400 sq.
An hour on long inclines with gradients steeper than i in 50, and also on a line which had scarcely any straight portions and in which there were many curves of 600 ft.
When an engineer has to construct a railway up a hill having a still steeper slope, he must secure practicable gradients by laying out the line in ascending spirals, if necessary tunnelling into the hill, as on the St Gothard railway, or in a series of zigzags, or he must resort to a rack or a cable railway.