The standing army is only an arm of the standing government.
The active or standing army comprises 18 battalions of infantry, 12 regiments of cavalry, 8 regiments of artillery, and 4 battalions of engineers.
The army was raised, at all events in part, by conscription; a standing army seems to have been first organized in Assyria.
But this scattered and heterogeneous empire required a large standing army and a strong central government to hold it together.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
The equipment of the standing army is thoroughly modern, the infantry being provided with Mauser rifles and the artillery with Krupp batteries.
In the first half of the 18th century we may note the appearance, intermittently at first, of the first Mexican periodical - the Gaceta de Mexico - in 17 2 2, a severe epidemic of yellow fever in 1736, and the establishment about 1750 of a standing army with a nucleus of Walloons and Swiss, negroes and Indians being excluded and the half-breeds admitted under restrictions.
The strength of Mercia or Northumbria might be mustered for, a single battle, but could not supply a standing army to hold down the vanquished.
Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganized justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.
Having raised the first standing army in the electorate he helped to drive the Turks from Vienna in September 1680, leading his men with great gallantry; but disgusted with the attitude of the emperor Leopold I.