It was, however, at Rochester, where Kate and her sister Margaret (1836-1893)(1836-1893) went to live with a married sister (Mrs Fish) that modern spiritualism assumed its present form, and that communication was, as it was believed, established with lost relatives and deceased eminent men.
Dexter, Spiritualism (New York, 1853-1855); R.
But the most noticeable passage in Le Nouveau spiritualisme (1884) is its contrast between the old and the new; where he says that the old spiritualism opposed spirit to matter, God to Nature, the new spiritualism places matter in spirit, Nature in God (p. 377).
Public sittings are apt to be means of obtaining money by false pretences, and the great scandal of spiritualism is undoubtedly the encouragement it gives to the immoral trade of fraudulent mediumship.
There seems to have been little practical interest in spiritualism in England till 1852, when its first development took the form of a mania for table-turning.
To the first belong what may be called the physical phenomena (q.v.) of spiritualism - those, namely, which, if correctly observed and due neither to conscious or unconscious trickery nor to hallucination or illusion on the part of the observers, exhibit a force acting in the physical world hitherto unknown to science.
Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.
It seems to have been common among the Jews, and the case of the witch of Endor is narrated in a way to suggest something beyond fraud; in the book of magic which bears the name of Dr Faustus may be found many of the formulae for raising demons; in England may be mentioned especially Dr Dee as one of the most famous of those who claimed before the days of modern spiritualism to have intercourse with the unseen world and to summon demons at his will.
Podmore, Modern Spiritualism (2 vols., London, 1902), and The Newer Spiritualism (1910); F.
Home's Lights and Shadows of Spiritualism (2nd ed., 1877-1878), and also in Hereward Carrington's The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism, Fraudulent and Genuine (Boston 1907).