With 23 to 25 pairs of claw-bearing legs, four spinous pads on the legs, and nephridial openings of legs 4 and 5 in the middle of the proximal pad or on its proximal side; feet with two primary papillae, one anterior and one posterior; outer jaw with two, inner jaw with two or three minor teeth at the base of the main tooth, separated by a diastema from the row of small teeth; crural glands present in the male only, in the two pairs of legs preceding the generative opening; coxal glands present.
In this family there is often a marked divergence between the sexes; the terminal antennal segments are larger in the male than in the female, and the males may carry large spinous processes on the head or prothorax, or both.
In rare cases the right and left preacetabular blades fuse with each other above the spinous processes.
One of the best known examples is the Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis), in which branches with spinous leaves, longer and more spreading than the ordinary adult leaf, are often found associated with the normal type of branch.
A and feet with two primary papillae on the anterior side and one on the posterior side; outer jaw with one minor tooth at the base of the main tooth, inner jaw with no interval between the large tooth and the series of small ones; last fully developed leg of the male with enlarged crural gland opening on a large papilla placed on its ventral surface; coxal organs absent; the nephridial openings of the 4th and 5th pairs of legs are placed in the proximal spinous pad.
In Ceratozamia the broad petiole-base is characterized by the presence of two lateral spinous processes, suggesting stipular appendages, comparable, on a reduced scale, with the large stipules of the Marattiaceae among Ferns.
The spinous process, the anterior and posterior oblique (commonly called preand post-zygapophyses), and the transverse processes.
With 14, 15 or 16 pairs of claw-bearing ambulatory legs, with three spinous pads on the legs, and nephridial opening of the 4th and 5th legs on the proximal pad; feet with one anterior, one posterior and one dorsal primary papilla; inner jaw without diastema, outer with or without a minor tooth.
In rare cases the pinnae of cycads are lobed or branched: in Dioon spinulosum (Central America) the margin of the segments bears numerous spinous processes; in some species of Encephalartos, e.g.