In the Coleoptera we have to do with an ancient yet dominant order, in which there is hardly a family that does not show specialization in some point of structure or life-history.
The specialization which accompanies the division of labour has important geographical consequences, for it necessitates communi 1 On the influence of land on people see Shaler, Nature and Man in America (New York and London, 1892); and Ellen C. Semple's American History and its Geographic Conditions (Boston, 3903).
And we must infer further that the specialization of the higher orders has been accompanied by an increase in the extent of the metamorphosis - a very exceptional condition among animals generally, as has been ably pointed out by L.
A similar specialization has been observed by Marshall Ward in the Puccinia parasitic on species of Bromus, and by Neger, Marchal and especially Salmon in the Erysiphaceae.
The remark may conveniently find its place here that plants which have reached a high degree of adaptive specialization have come to the end of their tether: a too complicated adjustment has deprived them of the elasticity which would enable them to adapt themselves to any further change in their surroundings, and they would pass away with conditions with which they are too inextricably bound up. Vast floras have doubtless thus found their grave in geologic change.
In 1840, was to lay a new stress on religious teaching, and to obviate the risk of overwork resulting from the simultaneous study of all subjects by the encouragement of specialization in a few.
A study of their geographical distribution has demonstrated that the islands may be divided into fairly well-marked groups, in each of which the birds show a degree of specialization closely correlated with diversity of environment and completeness and probable duration of separation from adjacent groups.
Morphologically, the spiders are remarkable for the concentration and specialization of their structure, which is accompanied with high physiological efficiency.
Indeed the genus Oedogonium exhibits a high degree of specialization in its reproductive system, considering that its thallus has not advanced beyond the stage of an unbranched filament.
The greater or less evolution and specialization of the metasomatic carapace appears to be the most important basis for classification - but this has not been made use of in the latest attempts at drawing up a system of the Trilobites.