In Offa's time a new gold coin, the mancus, resembling in standard the Roman solidus (about 70 grains), was introduced from Mahommedan countries.
We possess a large series of coins of Panticapaeum and other cities from the 5th century B.C. The gold staters of Panticapaeum beating Pan's head and a griffin are specially remarkable for their weight and fine workmanship. We have also coins with the names of the later Spartocids and a singularly complete series of dated solidi issued by the later or Achaemenian dynasty; in them may be noticed the swift degeneration of the gold solidus through silver and potin to bronze (see also Numismatics).
The effect of the imperial organization was to wring the last solidus out of the emaciated and fever-stricken population of Italy, and the belief.