On islands of rock above the snow-line - they attain to an equality with the endemic forms. As examples of northern flowers which are characteristic of the snow-region, we may mention Silene acaulis, Eritrichium nanum and Arenaria ciliata.
Of this nature are the scales on the petals in Lychnis, Silene and Cynoglossum, which are formed in the same way as the ligules of grasses.
The following circumpolar species are common, and widely diffused throughout the whole of the Alps: Silene acaulis, Dryas octopetala, Saxifraga oppositifolia, S.
Upon the highest summits are found Saponaria Pumilio (resembling our Silene acaulis) and varieties of Galium, Euphorbia, Astragalus, Veronica, Jurinea, Festuca, Scrophularia, Geranium, Asphodeline, Allium, Asperula; and, on the margins of the snow fields, a Taraxacum and Ranunculus demissus.
Sylvestris; Phloxes, like P. subulata, with its varieties setacea, Nelsoni, nivalis; the single-flowered varieties of the Primrose, Primula vulgaris; the Polyanthuses; Pyrethrum Parthenium aureum, called Golden Feather; Sempervivum calcareum; the pinkflowered Silene pendula; self-coloured varieties of the Pansy, V.
Have been gathered, and on the Shickshock Mountains of Eastern Canada Silene acaulis, L., Lychnis alpina, L., Cassiope hypnoides, Don., Rhododendron laponicum, Wahl, and many others.
Oppositifolia, Silene acauhs, and ai naphalium tuteo-al bum.
This was not confined to the north but may occur on the mountains of England and Wales: Salix herbacea, Silene acaulis and Dryas octopetala will serve as examples.