General works which may be consulted are Taxile-Delord, Histoire du second Empire (1868-1875); P. de La Gorce, Histoire du second Empire (1894-1905); A.
The decree of the 24th of November 1860 transferred the services from Paris back to Algiers, and re-established the functions of governor-general, which were exercised at the end of the second empire first by Marshal Pelissier, duc de Malakoff (December 1860 to September 1864) and then by Marshal MacMahon, duc de Magenta (September 1864 to July 1870).
On the fall of the Second Empire in September 1870 the government of national defence appointed him prefect of the department of the Rhone, in which capacity he had to suppress the Communist rising at Lyons.
As queen of Madagascar, and under the Second Empire attempts to establish French political influence were discouraged, and even as late as 1872 the subsidy enjoyed by the Jesuit missionaries was withdrawn.
The Egyptians took advantage of civil war in Abyssinia to seize Keren and the Bogos country in 1872 1, an action against which the negus Johannes (King John), newly come to the throne, did not at the 1 During the Second Empire unsuccessful efforts were made by France to obtain a Red Sea port and a foothold in northern Abyssinia.
Spuller, Histoire parlementaire de la Seconde Republique (1891); P. de la Gorce, Histoire du Second Empire (1894 et seq.).