The Eastern Question, though its roots are set far back in history - in the ancient contest between the political and intellectual ideals of Greece and Asia, and in the perennial rivalry of the powers for the control of the great trade routes to the East - dates in its modern sense from the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774, which marked the definitive establishment of Russia as a Black Sea power and formed the basis of her special claims to interfere in the affairs of the Ottoman empire.
Captain Mahan, Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and the Empire (London, 1892); Chevalier, Histoire de la marine francaise sous le consulat et l'empire (Paris, 1886).
The whole course of the war was to emphasize this distinction between the Sea Power and the Land Power; and in this fact lay the source of Napoleon's ascendancy in France and neighbouring lands, as also of his final overthrow.
Other works by Mahan are a Life of Admiral Farragut (1892); The Interest of America in Sea Power (1897); Lessons of the War with Spain (1899); The Story of the War with South Africa and The Problem of Asia (1900); Types of Naval Officers drawn from the History of the British Navy (1901); Retrospect and Prospect, studies of international relations (1902).
Almeida sought to subordinate all else to sea power and commerce, to concentrate the whole naval and military force of the kingdom on the maintenance of maritime ascendancy; to annex no territory, to avoid risking troops ashore, and to leave the defence of such factories as might be necessary to friendly native powers, which would receive in return the support of the Portuguese fleet.
The reception accorded the volume was instant and hearty; in England, in particular, it was deemed almost an epochmaking work, and was studied by naval specialists, cabinet ministers and journalists, as well as by a large part of the general public. It was followed by The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire (2 vols.
At the same time the relative proximity of three natural harbours, Peiraeus, Zea and Munychia, favoured the development of maritime commerce and of the sea power which formed the basis of Athenian hegemony.
The Influence of Sea Power upon History, by Captain Mahan, gives the best critical examination of the naval aspects of the war.
The sea power of the Greek communities on the coast of Asia Minor and in the Archipelago began to be a formidable rival to the Phoenician soon after the time of Hanna and Himilco, and peculiar interest attaches to the first recorded Greek Greeks.
Mahan, Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution and Empire (2 vols., London, 1892); A.