In the order Scrophulariaceae one of the two carpels is posterior and the other anterior, whilst in Convolvulaceae the carpels are arranged laterally.
Bonnier showed that the same relationship could be proved in the cases of such plants as the rattle (RhinanThus), the eye-bright (Euphrasia), and other members of the Natural Orders, Scrophulariaceae and Santalaceae, which effect a union between their roots and the roots of other plants growing near them.
This occurs in Labiatae and Scrophulariaceae (fig.
Thus in Campanula a five-cleft stigma indicates five carpels; in Bignoniaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Acanthaceae, the two-lobed or bilamellar stigma indicates a bilocular ovary.
The herbaceous vegetation does not differ greatly, generically, from that of the east, and many species of Primulaceae, Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Labiatae and Scrophulariaceae occur; balsams abound, also beautiful forms of Campanulaceae, Gentiana, Meconopsis, Saxifraga and many others.
Such are Papilionaceous flowers, Violaceae, many Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae and others.
Euphorbiaceae and Scrophulariaceae and Orchidaceae are universally present, the last in specially large proportions.