Convergence of the light to a bright spot on the basal walls of the epidermal cells of Saxifraga hirsutum and fig.
The following circumpolar species are common, and widely diffused throughout the whole of the Alps: Silene acaulis, Dryas octopetala, Saxifraga oppositifolia, S.
In Saxifraga umbrosa (London-pride) and in the horse-chestnut we meet with a raceme of scorpioid cymes; in sea-pink, a capitulum of contracted scorpioid cymes (often called a glomerulus); in laurustinus, a compound umbel of dichasial cymes; a scorpioid cyme of capitula in Vernonia scorpioides.
Of four genera which Hooker singles out as the largest in Sikkim, in China Corydalis has 76 species, Saxifraga 58, Pedicularis 129, and Primula 77.
These are: Festuca pulchella, Carex microstyla, Salix caesia, Rumex nivalis, Alsine aretioides, Aquilegia alpina, Thlaspi rotundifolium, Saxifraga Seguieri, S.
The herbaceous vegetation does not differ greatly, generically, from that of the east, and many species of Primulaceae, Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Labiatae and Scrophulariaceae occur; balsams abound, also beautiful forms of Campanulaceae, Gentiana, Meconopsis, Saxifraga and many others.
A, Epidermal cells of Saxifraga hirsulum.
On the shores of the lower reaches Thalictrum alpinum, L., Vesicaria arctica, Richards, Arapis alpina, L., Saxifraga oppositifolia, L., Cerastium alpinum, L., Saxifraga caespitosa, L.
On its western shores there are some twenty, such as Saxifraga umbrosa, Erica mediterranea and Arbutus unedo, which are not found in Britain at all.