The satrap is held in his position as a subjec.t by the controlling machinery of the empire, especially the Eye of the King; by the council of Persians in his province with whom he is bound to debate all matters of importance; and by the army: while in the hands of the messengers (Pers.
Cyrus managed very cleverly to gather a large army by beginning a quarrel with Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria, about the Ionian towns; he also pretended to prepare an expedition against the Pisidians, a mountainous tribe in the Taurus, which was never obedient to the Empire.
Pharnabazus, weary of bearing the whole cost of the war for the Peloponnesians, agreed to a period of truce so that envoys might visit Susa, but at this stage the whole position was changed by the appointment of Cyrus the Younger as satrap of Lydia, Greater Phrygia and Cappadocia.
He was the most effeminate and corrupt of a line of effeminate princes; hence Arbaces, satrap of Media, rebelled and, with the help of Belesys, the Babylonian priest, besieged Nineveh.
The marriage, however, was forbidden by Philip. Alexander, as soon as he had reduced Ionia, summoned Halicarnassus, where Memnon, the paramount satrap of Asia Minor, had taken refuge with the Persian fleet, to surrender; and on its refusal took the city after hard fighting and devastated it, but not being able to reduce the citadel, was forced to leave it blockaded.
The route followed by Alexander, though he also crossed at Thapsacus, took him unresisted across the northern parts; but the poor people of Mesopotamia suffered from the measures taken by their satrap Mazaeus to impede Alexander's progress.
When in 221 Molon, the satrap of Media, rebelled against Antiochus III., his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, joined him, but they were defeated and killed by the king.
When Alexander had defeated Darius III., his murderer Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, tried to organize a national resistance in the east.
Epiphanes, who at the end of his reign restored once more the authority of the empire in Babylonia, Susiana and Persis; perhaps a battle, in which the satrap Numenius of Mesene (southern Babylonia) defeated the Persians on the shore of Carmania on sea and land (Plin.
For the Asiatic provinces and Egypt, the old Persian name of satrapy (see Satrap) was still retained, but the governor seems to have been styled of Govern- officially in Greek strategos, although the term satrap certainly continued current in common parlance.