Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.
Alcohols may be readily prepared from the corresponding alkyl haloid by the action of moist silver oxide (which behaves as silver hydroxide); by the saponification of their esters; or b the reduction of of h dric alcohols by P Y Y with hydriodic acid, and the subsequent conversion of the resulting alkyl iodide into the alcohol by moist silver oxide.
Crotonic acid, so named from the fact that it was erroneously supposed to be a saponification product of croton oil, may be prepared by the oxidation of croton-aldehyde, CH3 CH:CH CHO, obtained by dehydrating aldol, or by treating acetylene successively with sulphuric acid and water; by boiling allyl cyanide with caustic potash; by the distillation of 0-oxybutyric acid; by heating paraldehyde with malonic acid and acetic acid to, oo C. (T.
In this field he contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, sulphuric acid, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the saponification of fats with sulphuric acid and the utilization of palmitic acid for candle-making.
OH): The process of saponification may be viewed as the gradual progressive transformation of tristearin, or some analogously constituted substance, into distearin, monostearin and glycerin, or as the similar transformation of a substance analogous to distearin or to monostearin into glycerin.
Adulteration of expensive oil with cheaper oils is now more extensively practised, and such tests as the determination of the saponification value (see above) and of the optical rotation, and in special cases the isolation and quantitative determination of characteristic substances, leads in very many cases to reliable results.
These high saponification values are due to the presence of (glycerides of) volatile fatty acids, and are of extreme usefulness to the analyst, especially in testing butter-fat for added margarine and other fats.
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.