By Goyaz, Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo and Parana, S.
Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.
Of the 700,211 immigrants located in the state of Sao Paulo from 1827 to the end of 1896, no less than 493,535 were Italians, and their aggregate throughout the republic was estimated in 1906 at more than 1,100,000.
The Mogyana carries the system entirely across the state of Sao Paulo into the western districts of Minas Geraes.
This great railway runs from the city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of Sao Paulo and northward into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m.
In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.
The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and Sao Paulo decided the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; Brazil de- a force of 5000 troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps; and the irregulars integral of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops, were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the river Uruguay.
The important part which the inhabitants of Sao Paulo have played in the history of Brazil has been already adverted to.
South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.
The principal trunk lines (the Sao Paulo and Paulista) have a broad gauge, while their extensions and feeders have a narrow gauge.