The coast is bold and rugged and with very few good harbours; San Diego and San Francisco bays being exceptions.
The lower Colorado river was discovered in 1540, but the explorers did not penetrate California; in 1542-1543 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored at least the southern coast; in 1579 Sir Francis Drake repaired his ships in some Californian port (almost certainly not San Francisco Bay), and named the land New Albion; two Philippine ships visited the coast in 1584 and 1595, and in 1602 and 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino discovered the sites of San Diego and Monterey.
Of growing importance are the gems found in California: a few diamonds in Butte county; rock crystal in Calaveras county; and tourmalines, kunzite, the rare pink beryl and bright blue topazes in San Diego county.
Of the southernmost point of San Diego Bay; this line has a total length of 1810 m., of which the Rio Grande comprises 1136 and the land route 674 m.
Raisins do well as far north as Yolo county, but do best in Madera, Jesus, King, Tulare and San Diego counties.
The Buick with its stolen plates turned up in the San Diego Airport parking lot wiped clean.
Below San Francisco the precipitation decreases along the coast, until at San Diego it is only about io in.
Because of these explorations, and also the long-felt need of a refitting point on the California coast for the galleons from Manila, San Diego was occupied in 1769 and Monterey in 1770 as a result of urgent orders from Charles III.
These 11 cities were: San Francisco (pop. 342,782), Los Angeles (102,479), Oakland (66,960), Alameda (16,464), Berkeley (13,214), - the last three being suburbs of San Francisco, and the last the seat of the state university, - Sacramento, the state capital (29,282), San Jose (21,500), San Diego (17,700), Stockton (17,506), Fresno (12,470), and Pasadena (9117).