Through the Bosporus and Dardanelles at the entrance of the Black Sea, and through the sound and belts at the entrance of the Baltic, streams of fresh surface-water flow outwards to the salter Mediterranean and North Sea, while salter water enters in each case as an undercurrent.
Among them were Henry Ward Beecher, pastor of Plymouth church (Congregational) from 1847 to 1887; Lyman Abbott, pastor of the same church from 1887 to 1898; Thomas De Witt Talmage, pastor of the Brooklyn Tabernacle (Presbyterian) from 1869 to 1894; Richard Salter Storrs (1821-1900), pastor of the church of the Pilgrims (Congregational) from 1846 to 1899; and Theodore L.
The very dense water of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean makes the column of water salter and heavier and the level lower than in the ocean beyond the straits.
This statement holds good for the Gulf of Suez, in which the water is much salter than in the open;sea; but in the Gulf of Akaba the distribution is exceedingly uniform, nowhere differing much from an average of 40.6 per mille.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.