In the hollows of this steppe region, salt water lakes occur, known.
From the observations of salinity it is inferred that a surface current flows inwards to the Red Sea in the eastern channel of the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb, while a current of very salt water flows outward to the Indian Ocean, through the western channel, at a depth of 50 to loo fathoms from the surface.
They are indeed exceedingly beautiful; and yet the surrounding waste of hills is chiefly a barren repetition of sun-cracked crags and ridges with parched and withered valleys intersecting them, where a trickle of salt water leaves a white and leprous streak amongst the faded tamarisk or the yellow stalks of last season's grass.
The action of sandstone in filtering salt waters was investigated in 1878 by Dr Isaac Roberts, F.R.S., who showed that when salt water was allowed to percolate blocks of sandstone, the effluent was at first nearly fresh, the salt being filtered out and crystallized for the most part near the surface of ingress to the sandstone.
The salt water filled my eyes, and took away my breath, and a great wave threw me up on the beach as easily as if I had been a little pebble.
On such an island, in the centre of which a borehole is put down, brackish water may be reached far below the sea-level; the salt water forming a saucer, as it were, in which the fresh water lies.
The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.
Provision is made for filling the mains with salt water from the bay if necessary in fighting fire.
A hill, as it were, of fresh water rested in the interstices of the rock upon the salt water, and continuing to press downwards, forced out the salt water even below the level of the sea.
The principal river of the district is the Irrawaddy, which debouches on the sea at its eastern extremity through a delta intersected with salt water creeks, among which the Pyamalaw, Pyinzalu, Kyunton, and Ngawun Shagegyi or Bassein river rank as important arms of the sea.