In 1383 the right of election reverted to the wards, but was obtained again by the livery companies in 1467.
In London the victory of the crafts is decisively marked by the ordinance of the time of Edward II., which required every citizen to be a member of some trade or mystery, and by another ordinance in 1375 which transferred the right of election of corporate officers (including members of parliament) from the ward-representatives to the trading companies.
A common practice is for the holder of a high title to nominate a successor; and his nomination is generally confirmed by the chiefs, or heads of households, with whom the right of election rests.
The death of the duke of Anjou after his mad endeavour to establish himself in the Netherlands (1584), and the accession Union of Henry of Navarre, heir to the effeminate Henry III., between reversed the situations of the two parties: the Prothe Guises testants again became supporters of the principle of d, ,,, heredity and divine right; the Catholics appealed P to right of election and the sovereignty of the people.
By the concordat of Worms, 1122, the emperor surrendered the right of investiture by ring and staff, and granted the right of election to the clergy.
When a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the confirmation of the election and the benediction of the new abbot.