The canals were crossed by wooden bridges without steps, and in the case of the wide Grand Canal the bridge at Rialto was carried on boats.
The first doge elected in Rialto was Angelo Particiaco, a Heraclean noble, with a strong bias towards Byzantium, and his reign was signalized by the building of the first church of San Marco, and by the translation of the saint's body from Alexandria, as though to affirm and to symbolize the creation of united Venice.
The concentration at Rialto marks the beginning of the history of Venice as a full-grown state.
The Rialto bridge was designed in 1178 by Nicolo Barattieri, and was carried on pontoons.
Soon after the concentration The at Rialto the doge Angelo Particiaco began an official residence for the head of the state.
It purports to have been indited from the Rialto at Venice by Pope Alexander III.
Soon after the concentration at Rialto (see History below), a small wooden church was erected about the year 828 for the reception of the relics of St Mark, which had been brought from Alexandria when the Moslems pulled down the church where he was buried.
The supports of the Rialto at Venice, and many buildings at Amsterdam, are of alder-wood.
On each occasion, no doubt, some of the refugees remained behind in the islands, and gradually built and peopled the twelve lagoon townships, which formed the germ of the state of Venice and were subsequently concentrated at Rialto or in the city we now know as Venice.