Nevertheless, the relations obtained in reversible cases such as sulphur have not yet found application in the highly interesting cases of ordinary irreversible isomerism.
In water-cooled condensers it is usual to arrange that the water passes through a large number of small pipes contained in a larger one through which the gas flows, and as it constantly happened that condenser pipes became choked by naphthalene, the so-called reversible condenser, in which the stream of gas may be altered from time to time and the walls of the pipes cleaned by pumping tar over them, is a decided advance.
Arrhenius, who hold that the union of toxin and antitoxin is comparatively loose, and belongs to the classof reversible actions, being comparable in fact with the union of a weak acid and base.
The available energy A is the work which may be gained from the system by a small reversible isothermal operation with an osmotic cylinder, that is Pdv.
There was adroit manipulation of the reversible signs.
The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
The analogous reversible heat effects which occur at the junction of a metal and an electrolyte were also investigated by Jahn, but he did not succeed in obtaining so complete an agreement with theory in this case.
If, starting from E, the same amount of heat h is restored at constant pressure, we should arrive at the point F on the adiabatic through B, since the substance has been transformed from B to F by a reversible path without loss or gain of heat on the whole.
Special reversible paddle steamers (called doubleenders) were designed for service in the inlets and estuaries, and sixty-six ironclads were built and employed during the four years.
The range of Steele's observations was too small to show any certain deviation from the formula, but he notes capricious changes attributed to change of condition of the proved to be proportional to the square of the current, the Peltier effect is reversible with the current, and being directly proportional to the first power of the current, changes sign when the current is reversed.