He continued, however, so openly to agitate for the retrocession of the country, being a member of two deputations which went to England endeavouring to get the annexation annulled, that in 1878 Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the British administrator, dismissed him from his service.
At the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Portugal was represented by three plenipotentiaries, who were instructed to press for the retrocession of Olivenza and to oppose the restoration of French Guiana, which the Brazilians had conquered in 1809.
It was probably forgotten at the time (though Lord Kimberley afterwards publicly stated it) that one of the chief reasons why the Gladstone government had granted the retrocession of the Transvaal after Majuba, was the fear that the Cape Colonial Dutch would join their kinsmen if the war continued.
After the receipt in December 1879 of the reports of Mr Gladstone's speeches during his Midlothian campaign - in which he denounced annexation as obtained by means dishonourable to Great Britain - the Boers expected nothing less than the retrocession of the country.
Reluctantly consented to a strict limitation of her armaments in the Black Sea, to withdrawal from the mouths of the Danube by the retrocession of Bessarabia which she had annexed in 1812, and finally to a renunciation of all special rights of intervention between the sultan and his Christian subjects.
But it was not until Great Britain was suffering from the humiliation of defeat that he was convinced that the time for granting that retrocession had arrived.
It is interesting to know, on the authority of Oltmanns, that when the oosphere is forming in the oogonium of Vaucheria, there is a retrocession of all the included nuclei but one.
Spanish rule, however, came unexpectedly to an end by the retrocession of Louisiana to France in 1800; and French dominion gave way in turn in 1803 - as the result of a chain of events even more unexpected, startling, and for the United States fortunate - to the rule of the last-named country.