Moist undried, sand, but sometimes of iron covered with a refractory coating to protect it from being melted or overheated by the molten cast iron.
The yield in silver is low unless the ores are exceptionally free-milling; the bullion produced is high-grade, as refractory silver minerals are hardly attacked.
The league prescribed uniform laws, standards and coinage; it summoned contingents, imposed taxes and fined or coerced refractory members.
The treaty of 1818 gave effect to this arrangement, Britain guaranteeing the prince against external enemies and refractory chiefs; he, on his part, pledging himself to be guided by her representative in the administration of his state.
The term is also used for a meshed cap of refractory oxides employed in systems of incandescent lighting (see Lighting).
Nevertheless Napoleon ordered the preliminary agreement to be considered as a definitive treaty, and on the 2nd of April gave instructions that one of the refractory cardinals should be carried off secretly by night from Fontainebleau, while the pontiff was to be guarded more closely than before.
In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.
He had to contend, like his predecessors, with the perennial hostility of the burgher aristocracy of Amsterdam, and at times with other refractory town councils, but his power in the States during his life was almost autocratic. His task was rendered lighter by the influence and ability of Heinsius, the grand pensionary of Holland, a wise and prudent statesman, whose tact and modera tion in dealing with the details and difficulties of internal administration were conspicuous.
Made of exceedingly refractory clay, it under went stoving for more than three weeks, and was consequent!) remarkable for its hardness and metallic timbre.
To an exterior in these early years somewhat heavy and uncouth, he united a manner which, by universal testimony, was irresistibly winning, with a fund of genuine but simple humour and fun that would break out on the most unlikely occasions, and in after years enabled him to overcome difficulties and mellow refractory chiefs when all other methods f ailed.