As early as 1823 the brothers Dubinin erected a refinery in the village of Mosdok, and in 1846 applied to Prince Woronzoff for a subsidy for extending the use of petroleum-distillates in the Caucasus.
Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.
In a refinery in Nova Scotia a system has been introduced by which a travelling crane above the bag filters lifts up any head bodily with all its bags attached, and runs it to the mud and washing tanks at the end of the battery, while another similar crane drops another head, fitted with fresh bags, into the place of the one just removed.
In 1906 a refinery (with a daily slicing capacity of 1200 tons) was built at Billings, Yellowstone county.
It is a shipping point; the Standard Oil Company has a large refinery here, and among its manufactures are asphaltum for street paving, linoleum and men's garments.
Kier fitted up a small refinery with a five-barrel still, for the treatment of the oil obtained from his father's saltwells.
The mud from the Ysel furnishes the material for large brick-works and potteries; there are also a celebrated manufactory of stearine candles, a yarn factory, an oil refinery and cigar factories.
By this arrangement the work of a refinery can be carried on with about one-half the cisterns otherwise required, because, although it does not reduce the number of bags required per day for a given amount of work, it enables the refiner to use one cistern twice a day with fresh bags, instead of only once as heretofore.
There are a sugar refinery and cooperage works, as well as large sawmills, shingle factories and many other industrial concerns.
Among the manufactures of Alton are iron and glass ware, miners' tools, shovels, coal-mine cars, flour, and agricultural implements; and there are a large oil refinery and a large lead smelter.