Shaftesbury's philosophical importance (see Ethics) is due mainly to his ethical speculations, in which his motive was primarily the ref utaticn of Hobbes's egoistic doctrine.
It is not difficult to imagine the storms aroused by this indiscreet proposal; and had not the majority of the Frenchmen assembled at Constance had the sagacity to ref use to uphold the cardinal of Cambrai on this point, the upshot would have been a premature dissolution of the council.
But Warwick meant to rely on the Protestant tratlon ot extremists; by January r55o the Catholics had been the duke of expelled from the council, and the pace of the Ref ormation increased instead of diminishing.
On this occasion he refused Napoleon III.'s offer to cede Venetia to Italy, on condition that Italy should abandon the Prussian alliance, and also ref used the Prussian decoration of the Black Eagle because Lamarmora, author of the alliance, was not to receive it.