No better testimony to the value of the quaternion method could be desired than the constant use made of its notation by mathematicians like Clifford (in his Kinematic) and by physicists like ClerkMaxwell (in his Electricity and Magnetism).

But every quaternion formula is a proposition in spherical (sometimes degrading to plane) trigonometry, and has the full advantage of the symmetry of the method.

In the applications of the calculus the co-ordinates of a quaternion are usually assumed to be numerical; when they are complex, the quaternion is further distinguished by Hamilton as a biquaternion.

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From the purely geometrical point of view, a quaternion may be regarded as the quotient of two directed lines in space - or, what comes to the same thing, as the factor, or operator, which changes one directed line into another.

He indulged in a great deal of speculation as to the existence of an extra-spatial unit, which was to furnish the raison d'etre of the numerical part, and render the quaternion homogeneous as well as linear.

This is the basis of a method parallel throughout to the quaternion method; in the specification of rotors and motors it is independent of the origin which for these purposes the quaternion method, pure and simple, requires.