In 1661 the lords justices forbade all unlawful assemblies, and in these they included meetings of presbytery as exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction not warranted by the law.
A Roman Catholic rising threw James into the arms of the kirk; in 1592 the acts of 1584 were abrogated, the Second Book of Discipline legalized and Presbytery established.
Henry Preserved Smith, professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis in Lane Seminary, for a pamphlet published in 1891 denying the inerrancy but affirming the inspiration of the Scriptures, was suspended in 1892 by the presbytery of Cincinnati, and was unsuccessful in his appeal to the synod and to the General Assembly.
The presbytery of New Brunswick declined to yield (1739).
He studied theology at Union Theological Seminary, at the Yale Divinity School, and at Andover, and was licensed to preach in 1840 by the Third Presbytery of Philadelphia.
He graduated at Union College in 1821; studied theology at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1823-1828, being in1826-1828in charge of the classes of Charles Hodge; was licensed to preach by the Carlisle Presbytery in 1828; and in1830-1840was professor of Biblical literature in the newly founded Western Theological Seminary of Allegheny, Pennsylvania.
Independents acknowledge the two orders of presbyters and deacons, and differ from the Calvinistic presbyterians chiefly in this, that with them the church is complete in each single congregation, which is subject to no control of presbytery or synod.
After travelling in Italy and Switzerland he was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Stirling and Falkirk in 1843, and was soon after ordained at the Secession (after 1847, the United Presbyterian) Church in Irvine, Ayrshire.
This book, by its independent criticism and departures from traditionalism, aroused the opposition of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church; though the charges brought against McGiffert were dismissed by the Presbytery of New York, to which they had been referred, a trial for heresy seemed inevitable, and McGiffert, in 1900, retired from the Presbyterian ministry and entered the Congregational Church, although he retained his position in Union theological seminary.
In 1643, when the full legal establishment of Presbytery had just been consummated, the assembly, asked by the English W parliament to arrange a league to be signed in both countries for the furtherance of reformed religion, agreed, but asked that the league should be a religious one.