These show that he took part in all the great controversies on predestination and Arminianism which then so agitated and harassed all Europe.
Prayer, however, is regarded as an impertinent interference with the Creator; while, at the same time, instead of the fatalistic predestination of Mahommedanism, the freedom of the human will is distinctly maintained.
Molina tried to reconcile the doctrine of predestination with the freedom of the human will by saying that the predestination is consequent upon God's foreknowledge of the free determination of man's will, which is therefore in no way affected by the fact of such predestination.
He denied that foreknowledge or predestination as temporal relations could be properly predicated of God as eternal; he described sin and its consequences as negations, neither caused by nor known to God; he maintained that as evil is only a stage in the development of good, there will ultimately be a universal return to God.
Against the Calvinists the synod of 1672 therefore aimed its rejection of unconditional predestination and of justification by faith alone, also its advocacy of what are substantially the Roman doctrines of transubstantiation and of purgatory; the Oriental hostility to Calvinism had been fanned by the Jesuits.
Although they surrendered transubstantiation, the loss of one mystery was amply compensated by the stupendous doctrines of original sin, redemption, faith, grace and predestination upon which they founded their theory of salvation.
Van Oppenraij, La Predestination dans l'Eglise reformee des Pays-Bas depuis l'origine jusqu'au synode national de Dordrecht (Louvain, 1906).
After giving this account of themselves they ask for information about several points in a way which shows the exigencies of a rude and isolated society, and finally they say that they have been much disturbed by the Lutheran teaching about freewill and predestination, for they had held that men did good works through natural virtue stimulated by God's grace, and they thought of predestination in no other way than as a part of God's foreknowledge.
In 1902 the General Assembly adopted a Brief Statement of the Reformed Faith, not as a legal standard but as an interpretation of the confession; it repudiated the doctrine of infant damnation, insisted on the consistency of predestination with God's universal love, and incorporated new chapters on the Holy Spirit, the love of God, and missions.
He wrote A Treatise on the Augustinian Doctrine of Predestination (1855); The Primitive Doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration (1856); A Review of the Baptismal Controversy (1862); Subscription to the Articles: a Letter (1863); Lectures on Miracles, being the Bampton Lectures for 1865; and Ruling Ideas in Early Ages and their relation to the Old Testament Faith (1877).