When the last-named condition had been fulfilled on the 28th of October the conclave began, on the 8th of November 1417, in the Kaufhaus of Constance; and, no later than St Martin's day, the cardinal-deacon Oddo Colonna was elected Pope Martin V.
Extending the area of his activities, he entered into communication with the emperor Henry III., addressed to Pope Leo IX.
Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when differences arose between Great Britain and Greece; of the Great Powers, in 1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of Pope Leo XIII., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the matter of the Caroline Islands.
The pope when teaching ex cathedra acts as head of the whole episcopal body and of the whole Church.
That he anointed Clovis with oil from the sacred ampulla, and that Pope Hormisdas had recognized him as primate of France.
A testimonial to his fidelity written by Henry to the pope on the 8th of November 1460 (Chandler, 346) was written while Henry was in Yorkist hands.
While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the king of France.
Gian Pietro Caraffa, who was made pope in 1555 with the name of Paul IV., endeavoured to revive the ancient papal policy of leaning upon France.
This universal outburst of energy for the restoration of Catholicism, which only came to a standstill in the middle of the 17th century, found one of its Gregory most zealous promotors in Ugo BoncompagniXIII., Pope Gregory XIII.
In 1309 it was conquered by the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem at the instigation of the pope and the Genoese, and converted into a great fortress for the protection of the southern seas against the Turks.