In 1073 Hildebrand was raised to the pontifical throne by the acclamation of the people of Rome, under the name of Gregory VII.
At most all that was asked was whether those decretals which did not appear in the Liber canonum (the collection of Dionysius Exiguus, accepted in France) had the force of law, but Pope Nicholas having answered that all the pontifical letters had the same authority (see Deer.
In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.
At most pontifical functions, moreover, the bishop - as the representative of Christ - is preceded by an acolyte with a burning candle (bugia) on a candlestick.
The pectoral cross, the pontifical gloves, the pontifical ring, the liturgical sandals and caligae, a tunicle worn over the stole and under the chasuble, and the mitre (see fig.
His Autonomies ecclesiastiques; eglises separees (1897), in which he speaks of the origin of the Anglican Church, but treats especially of the origin of the Greek Churches of the East, was received with scant favour in certain narrow circles of the pontifical court.
Of these again, according to the fully developed rules of the Catholic Church, there are three classes: (I) vestments worn only at the celebration of mass - chasuble, maniple, pontifical gloves, pontifical shoes, the pallium and the papal fanone and subcinctorium; (2) vestments never worn at mass, but at other liturgical functions, such as processions, administration of the sacraments, solemn choir services, i.e.
In virtue of the spurious donation of Constantine, forged at Rome in the time of Charlemagne, which was at first circulated in obscurity, but ended by gaining universal credit, it was believed that the first Christian emperor, in withdrawing to Constantinople, had bestowed on the pope all the provinces of the Western Empire, and that in consequence all sovereignty in the West, even that of the emperor, was derived from pontifical concessions.
The pontifical absolution of September 17, 1595, finally stultified the League, which had been again betrayed by the unsuccessful plot of Jean Chastel, the Jesuits pupil.
Tidander, Kriget mellan Sverige och Ryssland dren 1555-1557 (Vesteras, 1888) P. Pierling, Un Arbitrage pontifical au X VI e siecle entre la Pologne et la Russie (Bruxelles, 1890); V.