After a six months' siege Pisa surrendered on terms (9th October 1406), and, although it was not sacked, many of the citizens were exiled and others forced to live in Florence, a depopulation from which it never recovered.
The judges who governed the island were always at strife, and, as some of them applied to Pisa and some to Genoa for assistance against one another, the Italian seas were once more stained with blood, and the war burst out again and again, down to 1259, when it terminated in the decisive victory of the Pisans and the consolidation of their supremacy in Sardinia.
Tried vainly in the assembly of Tours and in the unsuccessful council of Pisa to alienate the XIL French clergy from a papacy which was now so little Julius II.
And the anti-pope Benedict of Pisa XIII.
Several years before the interference of Pheidon on behalf of Pisa - the four-horse chariot-race was added.
When he was beginning his first lecture at Pisa he opened the meteorological treatises of Aristotle.
Had been the pupil of Matthew of Pisa and summoned Justus Balduinus to his court to write the national history in Latin, while later King John II.
Had died, eliminating two dangers to the republic. Spain, who was at war with France over the partition of Naples, helped the Pisans as the enemies of Florence, France's ally (1501-1504), but when the war was over the Florentines were able to lay siege to Pisa (1507), and in 1509 the city was driven by famine to surrender and became a dependency of Florence once more.
The war against Pisa was renewed, and in 1499 the city might have been taken but for the dilatory tactics of the Florentine commander Paolo Vitelli, who was consequently arrested on a charge of treason and put to death.
It has some interesting medieval works of sculpture, and a fine chapel (Cappella Portinari), with a good dome and a beautiful frieze of angels, built by Michelozzo in 1462-1468, and containing the splendid sculptured tomb (a marble sarcophagus with reliefs, supported by statues) of Peter Martyr, the masterpiece of Giovanni di Balduccio of Pisa 0339); the walls of the chapel are decorated with important frescoes by Vincenzo Foppa of Brescia.